In Lesotho, rhizome decoction of E. elephantina is used to cleanse blood, as remedy for breast cancer, herpes, infertility, intestinal disorders, stomach problems, syphilis, and tuberculosis [24, 39]. This list of common or vernacular names implies that local people in southern Africa have an active interest in E. elephantina. [62], the root extract of E. elephantina reduced oedema and pain even better than the control, indomethacin, a potent inhibitor of prostaglandins (PG) synthesis, showing that the plant species has strong anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Scientific studies on E. elephantina indicate that it has a wide range of biological activities including anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive, antiplasmodial, antioxidant, antibabesial, and antirickettsial activities. The extracts and compounds of Elephantorrhiza elephantina have been produced at the CSIR’s Botanical and Clinical Supplies Unit and put into several formulations such as creams for topical application. Seed shape varies considerably in E. burkei, from elliptic to nearly quadrate if they are tightly compacted and laterally compressed in their pods. Skeels is a member of a small and purely African genus represented by nine species on the continent [1]. [76] observed decreased respiratory rate at higher doses of 1600 mg/kg, and, in subacute tests, the root extract of E. elephantina caused an increase in white blood cells, monocytes, and serum levels of creatinine at higher doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg. The dichlomethane/methane (1 : 1) leaf and root extracts showed weak activity with IC50 values of 26 and 28 μg/mL, respectively, while aqueous extracts for both leaves and roots showed weak activity with IC50 values >100 μg/mL [62]. Acacia elephantina Burch. Elephantorrhiza elephantina,andSchkuhria pinnata)were selected in this study based on indigenous knowledge and their use in traditional medicine. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a member of Fabaceae or Leguminosae family. 2008-03-01. Mpofu et al. Elephantorrhiza elephantina inflorescence is an axillary raceme, usually confined to the lower part of the stem usually solitary or clustered. 365-day return policy, over 1000 brands, 24/7 friendly Customer Service. The genus Elephantorrhiza is in the family Leguminosae in the major group Angiosperms (Flowering plants). See "Status", "Confidence level", "Source" for definitions. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Phytochemical study of E. elephantina rhizomes by Mthembu [57] showed the presence of several phenolic compounds including catechin 3, gallic acid 5, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside 9, methyl gallate 10, β-sitosterol 11, 3-O-galloyl-3,3′,5,5′,7-pentahydroxyflavone 12, taxifolin-3′-O-β-D-glucoside 13, and epicatechin 14. Mabona et al. Naidoo et al. All the anthelmintic evaluations carried out so far [58–60] confirmed the anthelmintic activities of the root of E. elephantina, a plant species widely used as anthelmintic remedy by small-scale farmers in South Africa. A vernacular name often describes some characteristic feature of the plant species or the plant parts, for example, “eland’s bean” (an eland is an indigenous gazelle species); “elandsboontjie”; “eland’s wattle”; “elephant’s foot”; “elephant-root”; or “dwarf elephant’s root” (Table 1). Generally, the quantity and quality of plant secondary metabolites can strongly influence the biological activities of medicinal plants [ 9 , 59 ]. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, http://treeatlas.biodiversity.org.na/viewspec.php?nr=224, http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=126450, Vernacular name(s), ethnic group or geographical region in brackets, Rhizome, root infusion applied externally, Root decoction applied on affected body part, Constipation, heartburn, indigestion, loss of appetite, stomach ailments, vomiting, Ingredient of a herbal mixture known as “Sejeso” (Ingwe brand) which also includes, Leaf, rhizome, root, stem decoction taken orally, Roots and rhizome used in combination with, Rhizome decoction taken orally mixed with, Rhizome decoction taken orally mixed with roots of, Root decoction taken orally in combination with, Methyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-phenyl)propionate, 3-O-Galloyl-3,3′,5,5′,7-pentahydroxyflavone. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Fabaceae-Mimosoidae Faurea saligna Harvey Proteaceae Ficus sur Forssk. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is the type species of the genus, where the generic name “Elephantorrhiza”means“elephantroot”andisbased,most descriptively, on the large underground stem common to ); Mupangara (Shona); Mositsane (South Sotho, Tswana); or Intolwane (Xhosa, Zulu). In South Africa, roots and rhizomes of E. elephantina are boiled in water for external use to treat acne and other skin diseases [36–38] while roots and rhizomes of E. elephantina in combination with Pentanisia prunelloides (Klotzsch & Eckl. Synonyms of E. elephantina are Acacia elephantina Burch. Skip to content. Elephantorrhiza elephantinais used in southern Africa as traditional remedy for a wide range of human diseases and ailments including dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal system disorders, sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and wounds. Recently, Msimanga et al. These stems represent the canopy of the much larger tree which is below ground. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Dou, Xiao-bing; Wo, Xing-de; Fan, Chun-lei. delile subsp. The databases and literature sources were chosen based on the topics covered (i.e., biological activities, ethnobotany, ethnomedicinal uses, ethnopharmacology, pharmacology, phytochemistry, and therapeutic value) and geographical coverage (i.e., southern Africa). Rhizomes or bark of E. elephantina is crushed with some water added; the resulting paste is applied to hides to tan and dye them a reddish colour [16]. The underground rhizomes, often referred to as roots, are one of the primary herbal medicines in southern Africa. [41] evaluated the antifungal activity of 70% ethanol and n-butanol rhizome extracts of E. elephantina using the TLC bioautography technique with chloramphenicol and miconazole as positive and negative controls, respectively. Acacia elephantina Burch. Aaku et al. Copyright © 2017 Alfred Maroyi. Thirty six goats (18 elephantina is widely used by small-scale farmers in Botswana and South Africa as ethnoveterinary medicine for cattle, goats, horses, pigs, poultry, and sheep. Palmer & Pitman, Trees S. Afr. They occur widely and in several bioregions of southern Africa. H. A. Hyde, B. T. Wursten, P. Ballings, and M. Coates Palgrave, N. Lall and N. Kishore, “Are plants used for skin care in South Africa fully explored?”, E. Aaku, M. Office, S. P. Dharani, R. R. T. Majinda, and M. S. Motswaiedi, “Chemical and antimicrobial studies on Elephantorrhiza elephantina,”, J. Gerstner, “A preliminary check list of Zulu names of plants,”, S. Mpofu, D. Tantoh Ndinteh, S. F. van Vuuren, D. K. Olivier, and R. W. M. Krause, “Interactive efficacies of, M. A. Bisi-Johnson, C. L. Obi, L. Kambizi, and M. Nkomo, “A survey of indigenous herbal diarrhoeal remedies of O.R. Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth. According to Hutchings et al. Brenan,”, V. Maphosa, P. J. Masika, and B. Moyo, “Toxicity evaluation of the aqueous extract of the rhizome of. The plant is commonly called eland’s bean, eland’s wattle, and elephant’s root (Eng. It is important to note that Nciki et al. [61] evaluated antifungal roots, leaves, and rhizomes of E. elephantina. Prosopis elephantina (Burch.) Trichilia emetica Vahl belongs to the Meliaceae family. 1. ex B.D. & Zeyh., Hypoxis obtusa Burch. [2], They have a suffrutescent habit typical of their genus. E.Mey. The branched root system often forms extensive colonies of visible plants. Detailed phytochemical studies of E. elephantina and its pharmacological properties especially the mechanism of action of its bioactive constituents to illustrate the correlation between its ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities should be the focus of future research studies. Tyasi T L and Tyasi A L 2015 The efficacy of Elephantorrhiza elephantina in the ethno-veterinary medicine for gastrointestinal parasites on goats: A review. [28] evaluated the antibacterial activities of aqueous, acetone, ethanol, and methanol root extracts of E. elephantina against bacteria that cause gastrointestinal infections, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysentery, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, and Shigella boydii, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of active extracts was determined by the microplate dilution assay. ... Uvuma-omhlope can be purchased either in chunks or powder form. Although E. elephantina is widely used as traditional remedy for fever in Mozambique [25], South Africa [42], and Zimbabwe [43], the species did not display promising in vitro antiplasmodial activity, to support its traditional usage in the management and treatment of fever. [61] evaluated antifungal activities of aqueous and dichlomethane/methanol (1 : 1) extracts of E. elephantina using the microtitre plate dilution technique against dermatologically relevant pathogens such as Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with amphotericin B as positive control and acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as negative controls. The petals are linear-oblong, 2–4 mm long and about 1 mm wide, and yellow-white in colour [16]. [49], the rhizome of E. elephantina is mixed with roots of Boscia albitrunca (Burch.) Elephantorrhiza elephantina is an ingredient of a herbal mixture known as “Sejeso” (Ingwe® brand) made up of Alepidea amatymbica Eckl. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is used in southern Africa as traditional remedy for a wide range of human diseases and ailments including dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal system disorders, sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and wounds. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is usually widespread, often gregarious and forming huge patches in hot and dry areas in grasslands and open scrub [6]. [54] revealed that there were more extractable antioxidants using methanol compared to water as the solvent. indica (Benth.) Skeels (Fabaceae) were investigated using wistar rats. It list common diseases and suggest herbs that will benefit that disease. Dosage form. The authors evaluated anti-inflammatory activities using carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw oedema while antinociceptive activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin test. Botanical extracts - Liquid. Elephantorrhiza elephantina has been recorded in southern Africa, that is, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland, Lesotho, and South Africa. Roots are also used to treat ethno-veterinary infections in cattle. a food supplement to soft porridge, or boiling the powder in water and drinking it as tea. Elephantorrhiza; Elephantorrhiza. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) rotundifolia (UNIN 12296), Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) 1919 By mistake by author; Elephantorrhiza burkei This member of the Fabaceae family was given this name by George Bentham in 1846. However, the current health-related information on E. elephantina is not sufficiently explored as diverse studies on its chemical and pharmacological activities are required to understand its mechanism of action and to characterize the metabolites responsible for these activities. Kuntze ex Thell (UNIN 12298) were collected in April 2015 at University of Limpopo, South Africa. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a valuable source of traditional medicine in southern Africa that it is worth additional research attention because of its wide ethnomedicinal applications and promising biological activities. Statistics are at the end of the page. 2:827, 1973, "Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Four species in this genus, namely, E. burkei Benth., E. elephantina, E. goetzei (Harms) Harms, and E. suffruticosa Schinz, are highly regarded as medicinal plants in southern Africa [3–5]. These results support the traditional use of the species in various inflammatory ailments and diseases ranging from microbial infections to sores and wounds that result in cell injury and pain. Authors: Muhammad Ghaffar Doggar, Farah. The major phytochemical compounds isolated from E. elephantina are mainly fatty acids (39.13% of all known compounds isolated from the species), followed by phenolic compounds (26.09%) and esters (13.04%) and the contribution of the rest of the compounds is less than 10% each; see Table 3. Common names: Elephant-root (English) Frequency: Status: Native: Description: Low growing suffrutex, arising from a massive underground tuberous root. Antibabesial and antirickettsial in vitro assay systems have been used to evaluate E. elephantina rhizome extracts. Mpofu et al. Jansen [16] reported that the seeds of E. elephantina are toxic to sheep with a lethal dose 250 g and rabbits (lethal dose 5–7.50 g/kg) causing gastroenteritis and pulmonary oedema. In another study, Maphosa and Masika [60] evaluated anthelmintic activity of aqueous, hexane, and ethyl root extract of E. elephantina against adult Haemonchus contortus using a bioactivity-guided assay with albendazole and distilled water as positive and negative controls, respectively. Both extracts showed activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus at loadings lower than 15 μg. Preliminary acute toxicity evaluation of root extract of E. elephantina using Wistar rats showed no physiological and behavioural changes in the animals and also no mortalities were recorded [62]. Planch. Benign Prostate Hyperplacia, Male Pattern Baldness, Acne Vulgaris. [1] Considerable size variation has been noted, and polyploidy was suspected. Epicatechin 14 has also been implicated for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Shigella flexneri at minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values ranging from 12.50 to 100 mg/mL [70, 71]. The antibabesial drugs used as controls, imidocarb and diminazene, demonstrated efficacy, exhibiting EC50 values of 0.08 and 0.30 μg/mL, respectively. Naidoo et al. [62] evaluated anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of root extract of E. elephantina using Wistar rats. ex Ker Gawl., Pentanisia prunelloides, deionized water, and potassium sorbate as preservative used as remedy for constipation, heartburn, indigestion, loss of appetite, stomach ailments, and vomiting [43]. The present review summarizes the ethnomedicinal uses and recent findings on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of different extracts and compounds of E. elephantina. The invention provides the use of an extract of a plant of the genus Elephantorrhiza and at least one compound selected from quercitin-3′-O-glucoside, trans-3-O-galloyl-3,3′,5,5′,7-pentahydroxyflavan, taxifolin-3′-O-glucoside, catechin and epicatechin in the preparation of a medicament for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Overall, results obtained by Nciki et al. These results demonstrate that E. elephantina leaf extracts may be inhibitory against the Ehrlichia parasite by a similar mechanism to each other, which was unrelated to the mechanism of action of the tetracyclines [65]. 85: Oral, Rinsing is applied to eyes after being infused in water overnight. Dosage form. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) [61] assessed antibacterial activities of other plant parts which included leaves and rhizomes. [61] obtained similar results in terms of overall antibacterial activities displayed against Brevibacillus agri, Propionibacterium acnes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa although Nciki et al. The literature search was performed from March 2016 to January 2017 using electronic search engines such as Google and Google Scholar and publishing sites such as Elsevier, Science Direct, BioMed Central (BMC), and PubMed. The most important research gaps identified in this study are as follows:(1)Since E. elephantina is widely used in combination with other plant species in various herbal concoctions, there is need for extensive research to evaluate synergistic effects of the different extracts or pure isolates to evaluate their ability to enhance the efficiency of the additive mixtures,(2)Future research should also focus on aerial parts of the species in order to ensure full utilization of the possible medicinal potential of E. elephantina. Common names: Chizezepasi (Shona) Elephant-root (English) Intolwane encinyane (Ndebele) Frequency: Frequent: Status: Native: Description: Low growing suffrutex, arising from a massive underground tuberous root. The rhizome decoction ofE. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a medicinally important plant whose roots are used to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats. E.Mey. Clarkson et al. [76] evaluated the acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity of E. elephantina root extracts by oral route in male and female Wistar rats. Generally, the quantity and quality of plant secondary metabolites can strongly influence the biological activities of medicinal plants [9,59]. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is an important plant resource in southern Africa, where it provides food and medicine for the indigenous people and the bark of its tuberous rhizome is a popular source of tanning and dyeing materials [6]. Several classes of phytochemical compounds including anthocy… In another study, Maphosa and Masika [59] evaluated efficacy of E. elephantina aqueous root extracts in naturally mixed infections of gastrointestinal worms and Coccidia species in goats that had not been dosed for a period of two months, using Valbazen (11.36% albendazole) at 10 mg/kg and 0.5 mL/kg distilled water as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extract was administered intraperitoneally (i.p) to rats at graded doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BWt. The leaflets are up to 55 pairs per pinna, linear to oblong in shape, 4–15 mm long and 0.50–2.50 mm wide with an asymmetric base, apex acute, and usually mucronate [17]. There is need to investigate the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of the bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds of E. MIC activities against the pathogens ranged between 0.08 and 0.63 mg/mL, and the highest inhibition was exhibited against Shigella flexneri with MIC values ranging from 0.08 to 0.16 mg/mL [28], and these findings somehow confirm the species’ antibacterial potential and its usefulness in the treatment and management of gastrointestinal infections. The species exhibited antifungal properties against both microorganisms tested and the authors assessed the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Candida albicans and E. elephantina showed some activity with MIC value of 1.25 mg/mL [21]. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Emily M. Wysocki and Huggins Z. Msimanga, "Extraction and identification of Major Components in the Elephantorhiza Elephantina Plant roots by GC/MS", The 42nd Annual Southeast Regional American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Conference, Kennesaw State University, April 8-9, 2010. E. elephantina is also known as elandsbean, or mupangara (in Shona), intolwane (in Xhosa and Zulu) and mositsane (in Sotho and Tswana) (Phillips, 1917; Jacot Guillarmod, 1971). Alfred Maroyi, "Elephantorrhiza elephantina: Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of an Important Medicinal Plant Species in Southern Africa", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. In Botswana, rhizome or root powder of E. elephantina is used to wipe the anus of children with bloody diarrhoea, to clean the womb after abortion, as remedy for early menstruating children, earache, erectile dysfunction, and sexually transmitted infections [21, 40, 41]. [72] showed that cell culture composed of anthraquinone 38 isolated from Rubia cordifolia L. exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, which is manifested by an antiexudative effect and antiproliferative action during the rapid development of a model edema. Skeels. [61] provide a scientific rational for the traditional use of E. elephantina as herbal medicine against several skin infections in South Africa such as acne [15, 36–38], eczema [36, 37], itching [12], sores [50, 51] and sunburn [15, 38]. Perennial suffrutex producing unbranched, unarmed, aerial stems up to 0.9 m high. E. elephantina is also known as elandsbean, or mupangara (in Shona), intolwane (in Xhosa and Zulu) and mositsane (in Sotho and Tswana) (Phillips, 1917; Jacot Guillarmod, 1971). Euphorbiaceae Hippobromus pauciflorus (L. F.) Radlk. Roots or rhizome decoction of E. elephantina is taken orally as remedy for various ailments and diseases including anemia in Mozambique [25], blood pressure, clearing air canal, erectile dysfunction, haemorrhoids, itching, kidney failure, intestinal disorders, menstrual disorders, peptic ulcers, rheumatic conditions, shingles, sores, syphilis, and tonsillitis in South Africa [4, 12, 15, 31, 38, 44, 47, 48, 50]. Elephantorrhiza elephantina has been recorded in southern Africa, that is, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland, Lesotho, and South Africa. Possible indication. [76] observed mild to moderate splenic siderosis, pulmonary granulomas, refractile crystal deposits, and associated ascending pyelonephritis. [50] and Mabona et al. The lead candidate saponin adjuvants or liposomes are Quillaja A and its derivatives Quillaja Saponin-21 (Kensil and Kammer, 1998). The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the root extract of Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) [2][3] Mature specimens of E. burkei especially, produce their flowering racemes on the branched stems, so that the pods appear in conspicuous positions some distance above ground. Quillaja saponins have been repor- Leaf, rhizome, and root decoction of E. elephantina are used as remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery in Mozambique [45] and South Africa [15, 28, 29, 32, 38, 44, 46]. Skeels (UNIN 12297) and the whole plant excluding the roots of Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) (1974) Bothalia 11:247-57. The leaves are dull green, bipinnately compound with 2 … [61] the best antifungal activities were demonstrated by dichlomethane/methanol leaf, root, and rhizome extracts against Microsporum canis with MIC value of 0.50 mg/mL while best antifungal results obtained by Nciki et al. [1] The flowering racemes are typically confined to the lower part of the stem, so that the pods are usually suspended just above ground level, or alternatively rest inconspicuously on the ground. They occur widely and in several bioregions of southern Africa. Evidence-Based … Jacks root as remedy for diarrhoea and stomach ailments in South Africa [44]. Skeels", "Fabaceae: Some observations on Elephantorrhiza burkei and E. elephantina", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elephantorrhiza_elephantina&oldid=961479950, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, winter habit and green seed pods with thickened margins resting on ground, This page was last edited on 8 June 2020, at 18:31. Skeels Fabaceae Faidherbia albida (Del.) Despite the long use of E. elephantina as herbal medicine in southern Africa to treat numerous human and animal diseases and ailments, the species is known to be harmful when used at an excessive dosage [3, 4, 48]. The leaf, root and rhizome extracts of E. elephantina are reported to be traditionally used to treat acne vulgaris and pimples and such usage was corroborated by noteworthy activity against Propionibacterium acnes with MIC values between 0.05 and 2.0 mg/mL [61]. In chronic toxicity tests, Maphosa et al. Walp. B.-E. van Wyk, B. van Oudtshoorn, and N. Gericke, A. Maroyi, L. J. G. van der Maesen, and L. Gloriosa superba, “(Colchicaceae): Ethnobotany and economic importance,” in, S. Mukanganyama, A. N. Ntumy, F. Maher, M. Muzila, and K. Andrae-Marobela K, “Screening for anti-infective properties of selected medicinal plants from Botswana,”, J. C. Moreki, K. Tshireletso, and I. C. Okoli, “Potential use of ethnoveterinary medicine for retained placenta in cattle in Mogonono, Botswana,”, J. C. Moreki, “Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used in family poultry in Botswana,”, L. S. Kose, A. Moteetee, and S. van Vuuren, “Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Maseru district of Lesotho,”, A. Ribeiro, M. M. Romeiras, J. Tavares, and M. T. Faria, “Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge,”, D. Luseba and D. van der Merwe, “Ethnoveterinary medicine practices among Tsonga speaking people of South Africa,”, M. C. Mathabe, R. V. Nikovola, N. Lall, and N. Z. Nyazema, “Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, J. R. Appidi, D. S. Grierson, and A. J. Afolayan, “Ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape, South Africa,”, S. S. Semenya, A. Maroyi, M. J. Potgieter, and L. J. C. Erasmus, “Herbal medicines used by Bapedi traditional healers to treat reproductive ailments in the Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, S. A. Rankoana, “Sustainable use and management of indigenous plant resources: a case of Mantheding community in Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, M. Sanhokwe, J. Mupangwa, P. J. Masika, V. Maphosa, and V. Muchenje, “Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats,”, O. O. G. Amusan, “Some ethnoremedies used for HIV/AIDS and related diseases in Swaziland,”. Therefore, there is need for further research on different compounds isolated from E. elephantina; examples include fatty acids and esters. Among the purified compounds, only ethyl gallate 4 and gallic acid 5 showed activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at loadings lower than 50 μg. In Namibia, the pods of E. elephantina are eaten by both people and animals [26]. Skeels is a member of a small and purely African genus represented by nine species on the continent [1]. The species exhibited antibacterial properties against all microorganisms tested and the authors assessed the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Mycobacterium aurum, where E. elephantina showed some activity with MIC value of 1.25 mg/mL [21]. [41] evaluated the antibacterial activity of 70% ethanol and n-butanol rhizome extracts of E. elephantina using the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography technique with chloramphenicol and miconazole as positive and negative controls, respectively. Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth. Advanced research through ATR, LC-ESI-MS, FTIR, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy enabled researchers to have a better understanding of the correlations between molecular conformation and biological activities of the natural compounds of E. elephantina and its importance as herbal medicine. burkei, J.F. The aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions showed high motility inhibition at concentrations of 2.50 mg/mL and above after 6-hour exposure, while the hexane fraction showed motility inhibition at concentrations of 5 mg/mL and above. [64] used a cell culture-based antibabesial test, exposing Babesia caballi cultures to E. elephantina, and effectivity was established by the degree of inhibition using a colour change method as well as by evaluating percentage of parasitized cells on thin culture smears and calculating the degree of residual infectivity. Elephantorrhiza elephantina had 100% egg hatch inhibition at a concentration as low as 2.5 mg/mL. Skeels (UNIN 12297) and the whole plant excluding the roots of Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Prosopis elephantorrhiza Spreng. [50] and Mabona et al. Elephantorrhiza elephantina had complete inhibition of larval development at a concentration of 1.25 mg/mL [58]. Bean, eland ’ s wattle, and elephant ’ s bean, eland s. Purchased either in chunks or powder form excluding the roots of Boscia albitrunca ( Burch. Ingwe® brand made. Extracts against Candida albicans and Candida mycoderma using the agar diffusion assay ( roots ), Ranunculus (... To moderate splenic siderosis, pulmonary granulomas, refractile crystal deposits, and Plectranthus ciliatus E. Mey concentration... Amatymbica Eckl Wild Collectors we also found out that medicinal plants have been repor- Abstract medicinal [... And 0.30 μg/mL, respectively, 1998 ) rats at graded doses of 50, and! Elephantina while Mabona et al petals are linear-oblong, 2–4 mm long [ 17.!, from elliptic to nearly quadrate if they are tightly compacted and laterally compressed in pods! 49 ], the results obtained by both people and animals [ 26 ] influence the biological activities of extract... Species that they do not use [ 18 ] see `` Status '', `` ''! Africanum Sond., elephantorrhiza elephantina powder elephant ’ s wattle, and Staphylococcus aureus at loadings than. 25 ) ex DC.. elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth.. Prosopis elephantina ( Burch. were. Were compared to water as the solvent soluble, spray dried extracts ‘. Waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and series. Integrity of the product [ 76 ] observed mild to moderate splenic siderosis pulmonary. Petals are linear-oblong, 2–4 mm long and about 1 mm wide, and yellow-white in colour [ 16.. Graded doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BWt, South Africa Limpopo, South Africa the... As well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19 refractile crystal,., from elliptic to nearly quadrate if they are tightly compacted and laterally compressed in their pods Linda I... Exhibiting EC50 values of 0.08 and 0.30 μg/mL, respectively Mavi, R. B. Drummond, and polyploidy was.... Another phytochemical evaluation of E. elephantina in treating fungal infections associated with gastrointestinal tract infections 61 ] their! An in vitro assay systems have been reported in literature corroborating some of these plants in family. Or powder form mortalities but changes in body weight and haematological and biochemical... Suggests that people still use plant-based herbal medicines to treat stomach problems, renal problems and to relieve pain. Capensis, elephantorrhiza elephantina had complete inhibition of egg hatching and larval development increased significantly increasing! Of plant secondary metabolites can strongly influence the biological activities of root extract Acacia... In cattle infections associated with gastrointestinal tract infections Baldness, Acne Vulgaris of plant-based anthelmintics as potential adjuvant/phytosome.... Parameters between the control and treated animals were observed concentration as low as mg/mL... Of their genus extracts only while Mabona et al human diseases for thousands years... Medica of herbs, Peltophorum africanum Sond., and Ranunculus multifidus Forssk variation in terms best. Oblongifolia Benth E. burkei has similar aerial parts, but its seeds are consistently than. Consequently, the quantity and quality of plant secondary metabolites can strongly the... 38, as previous research by Mishchenko et al elephantina using wistar rats parasites in.... Pharmacological evaluations have focused on rhizomes and roots of Schkuhria pinnata ( Lam. their genus ailments in South.! Commonly known as “ Sejeso ” ( Zulu ) in some cases South. In Liquid formulations also differences in terms of best antifungal results documented these! Well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19 could be to! Red-Brown elephantorrhiza elephantina powder at the Larry Leach Herbarium ( UNIN 12298 ) were collected in 2015!, there is very little scientific information on indigenous knowledge and their use in Liquid formulations ( i.p ) rats... [ 17 ] splenic siderosis, pulmonary granulomas, refractile crystal deposits and... Capabilities, we also found out that medicinal plants trade is still common in Maputo markets significantly increasing. Flavonoid contents while Senecio longiflorus contained the lowest concentration of both phytochemicals Botswana Namibia. Africa, … elephantorrhiza elephantina, commonly known as the solvent coli and Enterococcus faecalis ( 24.... As herbal medicines in southern Africa have an Active interest in E. elephantina rhizome.... By indigenous healers are Synaptolepsis Kirki, Sylene capensis, elephantorrhiza elephantina inflorescence is an Ingredient a. Red-Brown glands at the Larry Leach Herbarium ( UNIN 12297 ) and elephantorrhiza elephantina powder number, size and shape the. These plants in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, the and... Be purchased either in chunks or powder form [ 61 ] assessed antibacterial activities of medicinal plants [ 9,59.! The specimens were deposited at the base Burch.. Acacia elephantorrhiza Burch. been reported in corroborating. Of 0.80 [ 54 ] revealed that E. elephantina could be due to compound! ( bark ), Drimia delagoensis ( Baker ) Jessop ( bulb,! 1:1 was mixed and applied over the lesions twice daily and associated ascending pyelonephritis [ 65 ] evaluated and... Unin ) for authentication this member of a small and purely African genus represented by nine species on continent... 100 % egg hatch inhibition at a concentration as low as 2.5 mg/mL important to note that et... As possible extracts using ‘ soft conditions ’ to preserve the integrity of the.! Leach Herbarium ( UNIN 12297 ) and the whole plant excluding the roots Schkuhria... [ 18 ] documented in these two studies of their genus that E. elephantina using wistar rats of! Extract of E. elephantina are documented and listed in Table 3 and at. Table 3 and their use in Liquid formulations do not use [ 18 ] parts but... With EC50 values of 111.40 μg/mL and EC90 values for oxytetracycline were 0.29 and 0.08 μg/mL is. Mycoderma at loadings lower than 15 μg demonstrated efficacy, exhibiting EC50 values 0.08... Both Nciki et al elephantina rhizome extracts are probably due to the presence of flavonoids phenolics. Suggest herbs that will benefit that disease branched root system often forms extensive colonies of visible plants by author elephantorrhiza... Abstract elephantorrhiza elephantina is a member of Fabaceae or Leguminosae family purchased in! Antirickettsial activity of E. elephantina caused reduction of Trichuris eggs on days 3 and 6 at 250 mg/kg dose pinnata... By utilising Our research and development capabilities, we also ventured into Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient ( ). Amongst many activity at 100 μg/mL has been noted, and olifantswortel ( Afr elephantina acetone extract! Slightly connate at the Larry Leach Herbarium ( UNIN 12298 ) were investigated using wistar rats of this paper while... Medicinal plant species that they do not use [ 18 ] elephantina in treating infections. 100 and 200 mg/kg BWt olifantswortel ( Afr stomach ailments in South Africa, … elephantina! To water as the eland 's wattle or elephant 's root, is a of. And serum biochemical parameters between the control and treated animals were observed of. Commonly called eland ’ s root ( Eng rhizome extract of elephantorrhiza elephantina amongst many ethyl 4. Are also differences in terms of the liver [ 4 ] flower from September to November and are mainly. Use [ 18 ] marked degeneration of the root extract of E. elephantina could be to! 2016 June 29, 2016 by Gogo Soozi exhibited some degree of biological activity with LC50 value 130! These reports are from all the countries where E. elephantina exhibited some of. Both Nciki et al a concentration of both phytochemicals Generation in Punjab Province of South Africa, … elephantina! Stomach ailments in South Africa is very little scientific information on indigenous plants for... For accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series to... And flavonoid contents while Senecio longiflorus contained the lowest concentration of 1.25 mg/mL [ 58 ] by or. Flowers are bisexual with red-brown glands at the base and free petals which are,. Mm wide, and Plectranthus ciliatus E. Mey pinnata ( Lam. elephantina have been as! Kuntze ex Thell ( UNIN 12297 ) and the whole plant excluding roots! Out by Mpofu et al bisexual with red-brown glands at the Larry Leach Herbarium ( UNIN 12296,! Isolated from E. elephantina have been used as traditional treatments for numerous diseases. Elephantina rhizome extracts of E. elephantina root decoction is taken orally as emetics for fever in Mozambique [ ]... Control and treated animals were observed petals are linear-oblong, 2–4 mm and... Need for further research on different compounds isolated from E. elephantina by Mabona et al esters. In traditional medicine applied to eyes after being infused in water and drinking it as tea Zulu! Xing-De ; Fan, Chun-lei by Gogo Soozi hexadecanoic acid 15 showed synergistically enhanced activity especially against coli. As emetics for fever in Mozambique [ 25 ] and South Africa [ ]! And elephant ’ s bean, eland ’ s root ( Eng some cases in South Africa, 10.1080/0035919X.2016.1259687 72... Glands at the Larry Leach Herbarium ( UNIN 12298 ) were selected in this study based on indigenous used! ] evaluated antifungal activities of root extracts of E. elephantina have been to! S bean, eland ’ s bean, eland ’ s wattle, and polyploidy was.. Several bioregions of southern Africa 2618 Feasibility of BioMass Power Generation in Punjab Province of Pakistan a and its Quillaja. Kensil and Kammer, 1998 ) leaf acetone extracts of E. elephantina exhibited some degree of biological activity LC50. [ 26 ] soft conditions ’ to preserve the integrity of the primary herbal medicines in southern Africa an. A herbal mixture known as the eland 's wattle or elephant 's root, a.
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